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Sinus

Every year thousands of people flock to drug stores and department store pharmacies, to stand in front of numerous products trying to figure out what sinus medication they should buy. Many people often mistake a sinus problem with a cold or symptoms of allergies. Because these conditions often mimic each other, it is best to visit an ear, nose and throat specialist if you are prone to sinus infections.

Four Types of Sinus Cavities

The term “sinuses” actually refers to the sinus cavities. These facial sections are made up of four parts, all of which are called “sinus cavities”. The largest of the four cavities is the maxillary region or “maxillary sinus”, and it is located in your cheekbones. The maxillary is the largest parts of your sinus, spanning approximately one inch in length (across). It has two parts, too, one on each side of your nose.

The second part of your sinuses is called the “frontal sinus”. This region is located on your forehead just above the inner corner extending to about the middle your eyebrows. The frontal sinuses also consist of two parts - one above each inner eyebrow. The third part of your sinuses is called the “ethmoid sinus”, which is located between your eyes in the area most people call the nasal bridge.

The fourth and last part of the sinuses is called the “sphenoid sinus”, and it is located near the bones of your skull behind your nasal cavity. The sphenoid sinuses are close to the ethmoid sinuses, and if you were to look at a picture of your sphenoid sinuses, they would look like part of the ethmoid sinuses. Also, the sphenoid sinuses are the smallest part of your sinuses.

Symptoms and Signs

If you have problems with sinus, you could have a number of primary symptoms, as well as signs of a secondary infection or health problem. Some of the symptoms and signs of sinus include:

  • Itchy, watery eyes
  • Headache
  • Pressure around your nose
  • Pain slightly above your eyebrows
  • Stuffy nose
  • Fever
  • Reduced or lose of smell and taste
  • Bad breath
  • Cough that produces mucus

Causes and Concerns

Your sinuses are lined with mucosa, which is a soft, pink tissue. When the sinuses are not being attacked by a disease, there is a very thin layer of mucus present. Also, the sinuses are separated by a thin wall in the center of the nose, called the “nasal septum”. This structure separates the airways in the nose, which divides the nose into two nostrils. A good example of the nasal septum is, for instance, when you have a stuffy nose on the right side but not the left side of your nose.

A few diseases and conditions that are associated with the sinuses include:

  • Sinusitis
  • Nasal polyps
  • Paranasal sinuses
  • Sinus disease

Sinusitis is either acute or chronic. The acute form lasts only a short time and resolves either spontaneously or with treatment. Chronic sinusitis is recurring, problematic, and distressing. Both forms of sinusitis are cause by three different pathogens: bacteria, fungi, and viruses. To diagnose sinusitis, the sinus specialist will take a medical history and perform a physical examination. He may need to take an X-ray of your sinuses.

Solutions and Options

Treatment for viral sinusitis is different than the treatment of the bacterial form. The sinusitis caused by viruses usually runs its course within 10 to 14 days. Many people find relief with over the counter sinus medications, such as decongestants, saline nasal spray, and pain relievers. We advise that you drink lots of fluids (preferably water) and use saltwater nasal drops. Also, you can apply a warm, damp cloth to reduce pain and swelling. Some people use steam from the shower or other source to help loosen the mucus.

For bacterial sinusitis, we recommend that you be evaluated for treatment. Your antibiotic therapy will depend on your age, your unique condition, the extent of your infection, and your health condition. Also, this form of sinusitis responds to the same conventional treatment measures as the viral form. However, fungi sinusitis is a rare condition that is treated differently from the other two forms of sinusitis. Many times, patients with fungal sinusitis require steroid therapy or even surgery.

  1. Many people suffer from recurring, chronic sinusitis due to allergies. If your sinus specialist feels that your chronic sinusitis is caused from allergies, then prescription medication or allergy shots could help. If you have returning episodes of sinusitis symptoms, you could have chronic sinusitis. It is important that you come in for an evaluation, as this type of the disease requires specialized treatment.

Summary

Nearly everyone experiences problems with the sinuses, and viral and bacterial sinus infections are common. If you suspect you have sinusitis, the sooner you get to a sinus specialist, the better. Sinusitis can be painful, annoying, and problematic. No one likes the feeling of not being able to breathe from a stuffed up nose. Now that you understand the condition of sinusitis and the associated symptoms of sinus, call to make an appointment so you can get proper treatment and start feeling better.

Additional Readings

http://www.entnet.org/healthinformation/

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=130216